e c o v e n t i o n

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section 1: introduction
  getting it built
  land art, earthworks...

section 2: activism...
  direct engagements
  breaking out of the box...
  research centers
  community action

section 3: valuing anew...
  sites and non-sites
  itenerant nature
  agents of perpetual change

section 4: biodiversity...
  habitat architecture
  ocean habitats
  trans-species art
  spying for nature
  species reclamation

section 5: urban infrastructure...
  urban forests
  waste treatment
  sustainable 'hoods

section 6: reclamation...
  watershed management...
  uniting human intellect
  unspoiling soil

section 7: notes

section 8: a short history...

section 9: philosophical statements

section 10: glossary

section 11: critical diversity



The Contemporary Arts Center


section 8: a short history of ecoventions

1955- Herbert Bayer builds grass mound for Aspen Art Institute, Aspen, Colorado

1962- Joseph Beuys proposes "action" to clean up Elbe River in Hamburg, Germany

1965- Hans Haacke's manifesto calls for time-based, dynamic, natural, indeterminate art.
Alan Sonfist makes original drawings for Time Landscape

1968- Agnes Denes performs Haiku Poetry Burial, Rice Planting and Tree Chaining/Exercises in Eco-Logic, Sullivan County, New York
Patricia Johanson installs light responsive 1600-foot work along railroad, Buskirk, New York

1969- Haacke creates Grass Grows in response to 1965 manifesto, Ithaca, New York
Sonfist publicly articulates the significance of native forests in urban centers.
Sonfist monitors the air quality at 57th St & Fifth Avenue, 42nd Street & Broadway, West Broadway & Houston Street, and Rector St. & Broadway, and posts the results.
Betty Beaumont documents clean-up of worst U.S. oil spill, Santa Barbara, California
Mierle Laderman Ukeles writes "Manifesto for Maintenance Art"
Johanson draws 100s of innovative designs for ecologically-integrated gardens for an article commissioned by Home and Garden, but never published.

1970- Newton Harrison performs Making Earth ritual in his studio.
Johanson realizes Cyrus Field, a path through the woods, Buskirk, New York
Haacke creates Bowery Seeds to attract airborne seeds, New York, New York

1971- Robert Smithson constructs Spiral Hill/Broken Circle in Emmen, the Netherlands
Beuys performs Bog Action and Forest Action, Germany
Bonnie Sherk performs Public Lunch with animals, the Lion House, San Francisco Zoo
Laderman Ukeles publishes "Maintenance Art Manifesto,"Artforum, January

1972-1979- Helen and Newton Harrison realize seven projects for lagoons, California

1973- David Tudor performs Island Eye Island Ear, sounds of island nature, Knavelskär, Sweden

1973-1976- Laderman Ukeles performs 17 Maintenance Performances, United Kingdom, United States, and Israel

1973-1974- Haacke proposes Vorschlag Niemandsland (Proposal No Man's Land), Bonn, Germany
Johanson links school, woods and park space, Columbus East High School, Columbus, Indiana

1974- Beuys diagrams his Energy Plan for Western Man, New York, Chicago, Minneapolis.

1974-1980- Sherk transforms barren site into local educational farm, San Francisco, California

1975- Sonfist realizes Pool of Earth, a 25-foot diameter clay site to catch seeds, Artpark, Lewiston, New York
Sonfist creates Gene Banks, a collection of relics from a virgin hemlock forest.

1977- Denes plants half acre of white rice that "mutates" into red, Artpark, Lewiston, New York
Beaumont's 100-foot diameter iron Cable Piece hastens grass growth, Macomb, Illinois
Laderman Ukeles becomes New York Sanitation Department's Artist-in-Residence.

1977-1978- The Harrisons' Spoils Pile blossoms into a meadow, Artpark, Lewiston, New York

1978- Sonfist plants Time Landscape, La Guardia Place, New York City
Buster Simpson installs Downspout-Plant Life Monitoring System, Pike Place Public Market, Seattle, Washington
Simpson places concrete plates in Niagara River's sewage outfall to demonstrate toxicity, New York

1978-1980- Beaumont submerges a 150-foot long coral reef 50 miles off Atlantic Coast, New York

1979-1981- Laderman Ukeles shakes hands with 8,500 NYC sanitation workers.

1981-1986- Johanson transforms algal bloom lagoon into thriving ecosystem, Dallas, Texas

1982- Denes harvests 1000 pounds of wheat, Battery Park Landfill, New York City
Ocean Earth introduces scheme to tax polluters gauged by satellite-imagery data.

1982-1987- Beuys' Save the Forest reforests Kassel with 7000 trees, Documenta VII, Germany

1983- Lynne Hull carves her first water collecting hydroglyph, Albany County, Wyoming.
Laderman Ukeles Social Mirror reflects citizens onto garbage trucks, New York City
Viet Ngo creates his first wastewater treatment plant that uses lemnas.
Simpson places first limestone pills in Tolt Watershed to counter acidity, Seattle, Washington

1984- Simpson places vitreous china plates in sewage outfalls in Seattle, Houston, New York City, and Cleveland.

1985- Harriet Feigenbaum rings coal-dust runoff pond with 60 Willows trees, Scranton, Pennsylvania

1987-1996- Johanson designs Endangered Garden for sewer facility, San Francisco, California

1988- Simpson conceives of a safe, inexpensive composting toilet for public use.
Public Art Plan for Phoenix paves the way for ecoventions in urban infrastructure.
Ocean Earth publishes satellite imagery proving algal bloom occurring off coast of Denmark.

1988-1991- Denes builds responsive oasis, North Waterfront Park, 97-acre landfill, Berkeley, California

1989- British scientists writing in the London Times confirm Ocean Earth's 1986 analysis that Chernobyl's siting on an unstable landfill, not the workers, caused the accident.
Hull builds her first floating island in Wyoming.
Georg Dietzler develops system to conserve acorn germination, Munich, Germany.

1990- Hull installs Lightning Raptor Roost, her first for eagles and hawks, Red Desert, Wyoming
Betsy Damon founds Keepers of the Water to join communities, artists and scientists.

1991- Simpson places a nurse log to nurture a forest, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon

1991-2000- Aviva Rahmani restores town dump to salt water marsh, Vinalhaven, Maine

1992- Finland announces Denes' forest at Rio Summit to counter environmental damage.
Kathryn Miller first performs Seed Bombing the Landscape, Santa Barbara, California
Miller lures butterflies by revegetating a neglected public park, Isla Vista, California

1993- Cambridge, Massachusetts citizens contribute clear, colored and stained glass, and mirrors for Laderman Ukeles' Glasphalt Path.
Dietzler experiments with oyster mushrooms to clean PCB-contaminated soil, Germany
1994- Miller and Michael Honer perform Desert Lawn, various sites near Los Angeles, California
Reiko Goto, a botanist, entomologist and landscape architect create Cho-en, an experimental butterfly habitat on the Moscone Center's roof, San Francisco, California

1995-2000- Basia Irland directs A Gathering of Waters: Rio Grande, Source to Sea along 1885-mile river.

1995- Harrison Studio openly discuss influential A Vision for the Green Heart of Holland.
Miller revegetates plot of land under the Westgate Freeway, Melbourne, Australia

1996- Brandon Ballengée begins Amphibian Malformation Project with Stanley Sessions
11,000 people become stewards for 11,000 trees planted on Denes' man-made mountain, Pinziö gravel pits near Ylöjärvi, Finland.

1997- Portion of Harrison Studio's Future Garden is moved to Rhineauen Park, Bonn, Germany
CLUI introduces tours, Hinterland, Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions, California
Tera Galanti first breeds silkworms backwards to achieve silkmoths that fly.

1998- Henrik Håkansson records sleeping anaconda for 3 hours,Yasuni National Park, Ecuador
Håkansson monitors bats, owls, and insects residing in nest boxes, Vischering, Germany
Simpson places Brush with Illumination in False Creek to measure pollution, Vancouver, British Columbia
Hull builds owl houses and playground with Mayans, San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico
Hull works with Mayans to build monkey bridge and canoe trail, Punta Laguna, Mexico
Denes' A Forest for Australia entails planting six thousand trees in five spirals, Melbourne, Australia
Damon's The Living Water Garden features novel flow form designs, Chengdu, China
Laurie Lundquist creates Waterbridge to circulate standing water, Tempe, Arizona

1999- Ballengée begins breeding Hymenochirus curtipes frogs backwards in studio lab.
Irland installs Desert Fountain, The Albuquerque Museum, New Mexico
Team established to transform Nine Mile Run according to community guidelines.
Eco-art on-line dialogue established after College Arts Association panel discussion on state-of-the-art environmental art.

2000- Bundestag Speaker activates Haacke's Der Bervölkerung, The Reichstag, Berlin, Germany
Håkannson constructs A Thousand Leaves, a beach-side meadow, Helsinki,Finland
Denes delivers Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie, 25-year Masterplan, Fort Asperen, the Netherlands

2001- CLUI installs Dutch Landscape information kiosk, Fort Asperen Foundation, the Netherlands
Ballengée surveys malformed amphibians in ponds, Fairfield County, Ohio
Håkansson installs Zeewolde Field Library, Zeewolde, the Netherlands
Jackie Brookner's Gift of Water cleanses water re-entering pool, Grossenhain, Germany
AMD&ART complete Vintondale, a 35-acre reclaimed mine, Vintondale, PennsylvaniaEcovention dovetails with Rio+10, the UN-sponsored summit on urban ecology. Dozens of ecoventions are coming into fruition in 2002. To follow is a survey:

2002- Rahmani is restoring dozens of small eco-zones to stimulate the St. Louis watershed.
Steinmann builds Forum for Sustainability, an ecological research center, Kobi, Russia
Steinman, Lacy, and Kobayashi develop program for eco-tourism, Elkhorn City, Kentucky
Mel Chin develops S.W.I.N.G., an economically sustainable community model, Detroit, Michigan
Johanson's designs transform meridian strips, landfills, and a sanitation facility into public parks in Salina, Kansas; Ulsan Park and Millennium Park, both Seoul, Korea; and Petaluma, California, respectively.
Damon begins to renovate 47 km portion of Wen Yu He River, Beijing,China.

A Short History of Eco-Art Exhibitions

1951- "The New Landscape in Art and Science," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

1966- Hans Haacke grows grass on a Plexiglas cube (anticipates Bob Bingham's growing grass on slag for Nine Mile Run), Howard Wise Gallery, New York, New York

1967- Gyorgy Kepes opens Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

1968- Newton Harrison grows a lily cell in a medium, Howard Wise Gallery, New York, New York "The Art of the Real," Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York (travels)

1969- "Earth Art" (Haacke, Smithson, Oppenheim, Morris + 5), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

1970- Haacke performs Ten Turtles Set Free, Fondation Maeght, St. Paul de Vence, France
"Explorations: Towards a Civic Art," Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.
"Expo 70- New Art: Art and Technology," United States Pavilion, Osaka, Japan

1971- Helen Harrison performs Fish Feast for 500 people, The Hayward Gallery, London, United Kingdom
"Earth, Air, Fire, and Water: Elements of Art," Museum of Fine Art, Boston, Massachusetts
"Art and Technology," Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California
"Earth: Animal, Vegetable, Mineral," La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California
Alan Sonfist presents 1969 air monitoring action, Reese Palley Gallery, New York, New York

1972- Haacke, Rhinewater Purification Plant, Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany
Helen Harrison performs Citrus Feast for 175 people, Cal-State Univ., Fullerton, California
Alan Sonfist, Colony of Army Ants (live indoor anthill plus videos contrasting urban dwellers and ant life), Automation House, New York City, New York

1973- Helen Harrison performs Making Strawberry Jam, Cal. State Univ., Fullerton, California.
"Art in Space," Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan
"Patricia Johanson: A Selected Retrospective," Bennington College, Vermont
Mierle Laderman Ukeles, Maintenance Art, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut

1974- Beuys performs Coyote. I Like America and America Likes Me, Rene Bloch, New York City
Patricia Johanson: "Some Approaches to Landscape, Architecture and the City," Montclair State College, New Jersey

1975- "Art in Landscape," Independent Curators Inc., New York City (travels 2 years)
"A Response to the Environment," Rutgers University Gallery, New Brunswick, New Jersey

1977- Harrisons perform From the Great Lakes Meditation, Center for 20th Century Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Laderman Ukeles, "I Make Maintenance Art 1 Hour Every Day," Whitney Downtown

1978- Ocean Earth participates in "Earth Net: An Economic System," Baxter Art Museum, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
"Artists Investigate the Environment," Municipal Art Gallery, Los Angeles, California
"Celebration of Water," Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institution, New York City
"Patricia Johanson: Plant Drawings for Projects," Rosa Esman Gallery, New York City

1979- "Earthworks: Land Reclamation as Sculpture," Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington
"Dialogue, Discourse, Research," Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California

1979-1982- Herbert Bayer's Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks cleans stormwater runoff, in conjunction with Seattle Art Museum exhibition, Seattle, Washington

1981- Duisburg Oeffnet Sich (group show with Ocean Earth, Beuys and others), Ruhrgebiet, Germany
"Artists' Parks and Gardens," Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois (travels)
"Patricia Johanson: Landscapes," Rosa Esman Gallery,New York City

1982- "Space Force in Action," Ocean Earth's acid-rain analysis, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Germany
"Common Ground: Five Artists in the Florida Landscape,"Ringling Museum, Sarasota, Florida
"Patricia Johanson: A Project for the Fair Park Lagoon," Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Texas

1983- The Harrisons, "Guadaloupe Meander,A Refugia for San Jose,"San Jose Museum of Art,California

1984- Ocean Earth, "Television Government," Kunsthalle Berlin, Berlin, Germany

1985- The Harrisons, "Arroyo Seco Release," Baxter Gallery, Cal-Tech, Pasadena, California The Harrisons, "The Lagoon Cycle," Johnson Museum, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Ocean Earth, Command, Control, Communication + Intelligence (C3I) performance, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota

1987- Part-time Ocean Earth participant Ingo Günther exhibits Ocean Earth material at "Documenta VIII," Kassel, Germany
The Harrisons, "The Lagoon Cycle," Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California

1987- Grain from Denes' wheatfield travel in "The International Show to End World Hunger," Minnesota Museum of Art, Minneapolis, (travels to 13 countries/4 continents)

1988- "Off Site:Artists in Response to the Environment," Richmond Art Center, Richmond, Virgnia
Laderman Ukeles, "The New Urban Landscape," World Financial Center, New York City
"La Nature de l'Art," Parque de la Villette, CitÈ des Sciences et de l'Industrie and l'Institute Goethe, Paris, France.

1989- The Harrisons, "The Sava River," Yugoslavia, Neuen Berliner Kunstverein, Berlin, Germany
"Urban Sites:Artists and Urban Strategies," California College of Arts and Crafts Gallery, Oakland, California
"Ressource Kunst, Künstlerhaus Bethanien," Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Germany
Buster Simpson, "Face Plate," Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington,D.C.

1990- "Revered Earth," Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX (travels 2 years)
The Harrisons, "The Sava River," Yugoslavia, Moderna Galerija, Ljublijana, Yugoslavia (travels)

1991- "Europa," Ocean Earth present satellite monitoring of each of Europe's 13 ocean basins, Kunstraum Daxer, Munich, Germany
"Heimaten," Ocean Earth presents satellite monitoring of 4 Black Sea sites, Wiener Festwochen, Vienna, Austria
Mel Chin plants Revival Field with Dr. Rufus Chaney, Pig's Eye Landfill, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota

1992- "Fragile Ecologies," Queens Art Museum, Queens, New York (travels 2 years)
Ocean Earth text exhibited at "Documenta IX," Kassel, Germany
"Completing the Circle: Artists Books on the Environment," Minnesota Center for Book Arts.
"Imperiled Shores," The Baxter Gallery, Portland School of Art, Portland, Maine

1993- "The Coastal Project 1988-93 A Retro.," C.C.S. Gallery, U.C., Santa Barbara, California
The Harrisons, "Serpentine Lattice," Cooley Art Gallery, Reed College, Portland, Oregon
"Ocean Earth: for a World Which Works," retrospective, Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria
Ocean Earth exhibit Oil-Free Corridor, "Venice Biennale Aperto," Venice, Italy
"Creative Solutions to Ecological Issues," Dallas Museum of Natural History, Texas (travels)
Ocean Earth exhibit Giant Algae System/Clean Air Rig, Strategie Globale, FRAC Poitou-Charentes, Angoulême, France (travels throughout France 1993-96)
"Kunst-Kultur-Ökologie" (the Harrisons), Bea Voigt Gallery, Munich, Germany
"The Nature of the Machine (kinetic and biokinetic art)," Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, Illinois

1994- Ocean Earth, "Startbahn Österreich," a bird path, Galerie Metropol, Vienna, Austria
"Eurasian Scenario," Ocean Earth exhibit basins, Mark Joancou Gallery, London, United Kingdom
"Lure of the Local" (Lucy Lippard, curator), Colorado University Gallery, Boulder, Colorado
"Effect or Infect (Art and Ecology)" (Hull, Harrisons), Soho 20, New York City

"Art as if the World Matters," Dahl Fine Arts Center, Rapid City, South Dakota
"A Natural Dialogue," International Sculpture Center, New York City (travels to D.C.)
Laderman Ukeles, "Garbage! The History and Politics of Trash in NYC," New York Public Library, New York City
"Re: Regarding,Recycling, Revaluing," Step Gallery,Arizona State University,Tempe, Arizona

1995- "Eco Nation" (Simpson, Steinman, Collins/Goto...), Bedford Gallery, Walnut Creek, California
"Division of Labor: Women's Work in Contemporary Art," Bronx Museum of the Arts, New York
Harrison Studio, "A Vision for the Green Heart of Holland," small chapel, Gouda, Nevada
Ocean Earth alternatives to dams, Landkraft, Kunstlerhaus Thurn & Taxis, Bregenz, Austria
Miller and Honer, "Lawns in the Desert," Municipal Art Gallery,Los Angeles, California

1996- Dietzler creates a mushroom column in situ, San Francisco Art Institute, California
Harrison Studio plants "Future Garden-Part 1: The Endangered Meadows of Europe" atop Bundes Kunst-und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, Germany
Ocean Earth proposes to fix Chernobyl's hydrological pressure, Steffany Martz, New York City
"TRILOGY-Art Nature-Science," Kunsthallen Brandts Klædefabrik, Odense, Denmark
Art About the Environment, Center for Art and Earth, New York City
Lynne Hull (solo) "Trans-species," Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado
"Post-Waste" (Dietzler presents portable mushroom patch), Arts Benicias, Benicia, California
Henrik Håkansson, Z.O.N.E. for frogs,"Nowhere," Louisiana Museum, Humlebæk, Denmark

1997- "The Grasslands: Urban Wasteland Transformed," Melbourne International Art Festival
Ocean Earth, Circulatory System, Antartica-oriented maps,
"Desert Flood", New York City
Harrison Studio, "Green Heart Vision," Kunstmuseum Bonn, Germany
Center for Land Use Interpretation, "Hinterland: A Voyage into Exurban Southern California," Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions, California
Lynne Hull (solo), University of Illinois Gallery, Springfield, Illinois
Håkansson, Out of the Black into the Blue, Nordic Pavilion,Venice Biennale, Italy
Alan Sonfist, "History and the Landscape," The University of Iowa Museum,Iowa City, Iowa
Laurie Lundquist, "Surface Tension," Joseph Gross Gallery, University of Arizona, Tempe, Arizona
Dietzler installs Oyster Mushroom Growing Experiment I, "Laboratory for Plant Growing," Le Jardin des Biotechnologies, La Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, Paris, France
AMD&ART, "From Rust to Renewal," travels for two years in Pennsylvania.

1998- Ocean Earth, sole-non Yugoslavian participant in ocean conference, Zagreb, Yugoslavia
"Watershed," Euphrat Museum, Cupertino, California
Håkansson, After Forever (after all), "Greenhouse Effect," Serpentine Gallery, London, United Kingdom
AMD&ART, Testing the Waters, "Eco-Revelatory Design: Nature Constructed/Nature Revealed," Temple Buhl Gallery, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois (travels two years).

1999- CLUI-"Commonwealth of Technology: Extrapolations on the Contemporary Landscape of Massachusetts," List Center for Visual Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
Nine Mile Run-Greenway Project, "Conversations in the Rust Belt: Brownfields into Greenways," Wood St. Galleries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Håkansson, "Tomorrow and Tonight," roof-garden surveillance, Kunsthalle Basel,Switzerland
CLUI, "One Hundred Places in Washington," Center on Contemporary Art, Seattle, Washington
"Oil & Water," Arizona Museum for Youth, Mesa, Arizona
Jackie Brookner, Prima Lingua, "Drip, Blow, Burn/ Forces of
Nature in Contemporary Art," Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, New York
"Natural Reality" (Collins/Goto, Dietzler), Ludwig Forum, Aachen, Germany

2000- Ocean Earth, China Basin Plans, "Ecologies," Smart Museum of Art, U.C.,Chicago, Illinois
"Our Planet, Ourselves" (Hull among others), St. Louis, Missouri
Jackie Brookner, I'm You, "Abundant Invention," Wave Hill, Bronx, New York
Henrik Håkansson, "Sweat Leaf," Galerie fur Zeitgenössiche Kunst Leipzig, German
"The Natural Order (Hull)," The Landmark Gallery, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Brandon Ballengée, "The Red Bloom and Brown Tide: A Visual
Survey of Toxic Microalgae," C.W. Post campus, Long Island University, Brookville, New York
"Sites Around the City," 26 projects in different locations, organized by Arizona State University Museum, Tempe, Arizona

2001- CLUI- "Formations of Erasure," Storefront for Art and Architecture, New York City
CLUI- "Curious Orange," Beall Center for Art and Technology, University of California, Irvine, California
CLUI- "Back to the Bay: Exploring the Margins of the San Francisco Bay Region,"Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, California
Ballengée exhibits backward bred frogs in "Paradise Now," Exit Art, New York City
Ocean Earth, "Sea Change growth of algae/fermentation/gas flame," Exeter, United Kingdom
Ocean Earth, "Policy Models," Rockford Art Museum, Rockford, Illinois
"Six Proposals for Fresh Kills Landfill," Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, travels to Municipal Art Gallery, New York City
Ballengée exhibits Ever Changing Tide, Queens Museum of Art, New York
"Post-Landscape: between Nature and Culture," Pomona College Museum of Art, California
Lynne Hull (solo) "Corridors and Connections," FC-MOCA, Ft. Collins, Colorado

2002- Aviva Rahmani, "If...," Center for Maine Contemporary Art, Rockport, Maine
AMD&ART's Vintondale project is presented at "Documenta XI," Kassel, Germany.
In conjunction with Ecovention at the Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio: Hull places floating islands on ponds in Swaim Park and Rowe Woods, and launches water kites on Mill Creek, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Brookner works with Mill Creek Restoration Project, Cincinnati Recreation Commission, and Human Nature to develop bio-sculpture that cleanses street runoff before entering the Mill Creek, Cincinnati, Ohio.
CLUI photo-documents 20 man-made landforms in Ohio.
Simpson constructs complex vertical garden outside CAC to cleanse HVAC runoff before it dumps into public sewer.
Ocean Earth works with Robert Vitale of the Water Wheel Factory to adapt Poncelet undershot Water WheelTM for deep rivers, North Carolina and Ohio.
Ballengée broadcasts experiments to determine cause of amphibian malformation via an internet connection from Queens, New York to the CAC.

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